An electrical substation is a crucial pillar in our power grid. Typically located on the periphery of consumption areas, both indoors and outdoors to optimize space, these electrical substations are essential for electricity distribution. They can also be found near power plants, on the outskirts of urban centers, where they stand as outdoor facilities.
An electrical substation differs from a transformer station mainly in terms of the scale of the facilities. Unlike transformer stations associated with high-medium voltage transmission systems, electrical substations are designed to handle and transform lower voltages.
Exploring the Operation of an Electrical Substation
An electrical substation serves several key functions: production, conversion, transformation, regulation, and distribution of energy. It is through these electrical substations that energy is distributed to different geographical regions.
The electricity that reaches our homes is regulated so that it can be safely used with our appliances. This is made possible thanks to various electrical substations that level the power, transform, and distribute electrical energy.
There are prominent companies in countries like Spain, such as Eiffage Energía, Grupo Elecnor, and ABB, that have revolutionized electrical substation technology in terms of construction, size, performance, and intelligence.
Components of an Electrical Substation
The electrical substation is composed of several key elements, including the transformer, power switch, circuit breaker, fuse blades, disconnect switches, test switches, surge arresters, instrument transformers, junction boxes, and capacitors. Each component plays a unique role in the operation of the electrical substation.
Categories of Electrical Substations
Electrical substations can be categorized based on their functionality. Some types of electrical substations include:
Transformer Substation: These substations contain one or more transformers that either step up or step down the voltage. Stepping-up transformer substations increase the generated voltage to much higher levels for transport, while stepping-down transformer substations reduce high voltages to medium levels for distribution.
Switching Substation: This electrical substation connects two or more circuits without changing the voltage. It serves as a node in the electrical system.
In summary, electrical substations are an essential component of our power distribution network, ensuring that the electricity we use daily is available in the right quantities and at the correct voltage.